Disorder (ADHD) in Adults
Disorder (ADHD) in Children
Autism and Pervasive Developmental
Digital EEG and Evoked Potentials
for High Achievers
Speech and Language Disorders
What are learning disabilities?
If a child has average or above-average intelligence and is performing
very poorly in school, he or she may have a learning disability. This
disability is caused by the makeup or function of a person's brain and
may last throughout life.
The definition of learning disability used for educational purposes
may vary from state to state. These disorders involve difficulties with
listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or solving math problems.
What are the characteristics of learning
Learning disabilities have a wide range of characteristics and various
degrees of severity. However, all learning-disabled children have poor
or uneven academic achievement even though they have normal or above-normal
intelligence. These children may show difficulties in one or many of
the following areas:
What are the consequences of learning disabilities?
Focusing attention is by far the most common difficulty children have
with learning disabilities. As a result, these children may often
perform poorly in the classroom, on tests, or at home. Impulsiveness
may affect their ability to give thoughtful responses to questions
or to stop inappropriate behaviors. They may seem to be lazy or disinterested
because they have trouble focusing on details and get tired easily
when they try to concentrate.
Children may have difficulties with receptive language or with expressive
Children who often ask to have things repeated or have trouble following
multiple instructions may have difficulties in receptive language.
Children who cannot express themselves clearly may have expressive
language difficulties. They may often use the wrong words or mix their
words up. They may not be able to tell a story without getting the
events mixed up. (This type of difficulty should not be confused with
the problems of a child who uses English as a second language.)
- Temporal-spatial orientation
A child with problems in this area may have trouble understanding
the difference between tomorrow and next week. Or he may have difficulty
with directions and often get lost. He may be the last to learn the
way to the bus or the bathroom.
- Visual-perceptual processing
Many children seem to see letters or words backwards. For example,
they may confuse b's and d's or read "was" for "saw"
even after they have finished the 3rd grade. They may also have difficulty
learning to write and get poor marks in penmanship.
- Auditory-perceptual processing
Children who have this kind of problem have difficulty focusing on
important sounds in the classroom instead of background noise. For
example, they may have difficulty listening to the teacher. They may
appear inattentive and have trouble following spoken instructions.
Many children may have trouble remembering basic information like
their addresses and phone numbers. They may find it hard to remember
multiplication tables or days of the week. They may also have trouble
with short-term memory and forget classroom instructions or where
they are in telling a story or in conversation.
- Fine motor control
Children who have trouble with fine motor control have poor handwriting
and turn in messy papers. They may be slow in copying work from the
blackboard. It may be hard for them to produce good work because writing
is so difficult. They become ashamed of their work .
- Gross motor control
Children with a learning disability may at times appear to be clumsy
and awkward. They may drop things and bump into desks more often than
other children. As a result, their peers may tease and reject them.
Children who are not doing well in school may not feel good about themselves.
If they feel they can't cope with the demands of the people around them,
they may withdraw from their friends and social activities. Some experts
believe that the loss of self-esteem may cause learning-disabled children
to spend time with others who view themselves as losers and may contribute
to juvenile delinquency. The children may lose motivation and drop out
of school. It is important not to overlook poor self-esteem in learning-disabled
children. These children need to receive counseling and change expectations